Chanakya : maker of Chandragupt & united India
Dr Balraj Bishnoi
1 Sanskrit treatise – Arthshashtra is a science denotes acquisition & protection of the means of livelihood & how to carry these activities. Deals with political statecraft i.e. a) principles of public administration. B) machinery of government c)economic policy d)military strategy and personnel. (51)
2 The objectives a) Palana , refers to administration & protection of state & b) Labha ,is a conquest & acquisition of territory. (20)
3 Arthshashtra is divided into 15 books/adhikaranas. 4 books relates with pattern of P.A. i.e. 1st , 2nd . 5th , & 6th . half of arthshashtra devoted to strategies & tactics of defense & foreign policy.1st book- relation of the king with ministers, princes, envoys & spies. 2nd book – entitled “Duties of the Government superintendent deals with the department .
4 Matsyanyaya-“ Law of the fish “ , according to which bigger fish swallows the smaller one thus people agreed to pay taxes (1/6th grains, 1/10th of merchandise & gold)to get security & prosperity under one rule. A king favour like Indra & Yama.
5 Nature of duties , according to arthshashtra administrator must possess science of public administration. Kautilya exorts a prince to study the science of Artha (economics) under government superintendents and science of Dandaniti (the science of government) under politicians.
6 Saptanga theory – it is essential organ /seven prakritis (states) as following :
a) The ruler /swamin
b) The amatya / minister eg priest , teacher, P.M. & TREASURER and collector general etc.
c) Janapada /population – their existence is to be understood by implication in reference to janapada.
d) Durga /fortified capital : 4 types 1) audik-surrounded on all sides by water 2) parvat – which is in centre of hills 3) dhanvan- lies in desert and 4) van-durga- situated in forest.
e) Kosha /treasury –state treasury is permanent source of revenue & king is advised 1/6th part of the produced with sufficient currency & gold /minerals.
f) Danda / army- army versed in military arts with loyality & patriotism.
g) Mitra/ ally & friend
Ø Principles of administration (regulate the working of machinery of the Government) :
1 Principle of authority, obedience and discipline, of duty & interest & of responsibility
And of responsibility (Sovereignty ) .
2 principle of division of labour , of coordination , of separation , of speciality , of hierarchy & of equity. ( actual method of work of administration).
Ø Kautilya identifies 5 elements of administration :
1 The means of starting undertakings
2 The excellance of man & material
3 Appointment of place & ttime
4 Provision against failure AND
5 Accomplishment of the work
Ø Fear, duty & interest are among a no. of motives behind the act of obedience for the order of administration (arthshashtra). The motive of fear “ the life of man ……………………life in fire…..
Ø The purpose of Danda , the symbol of authority is to make people righteousness & work productive of wealth & enjoyments.
Ø Important offices of the state : Kautilya categorises them into 18 tirthas:
Eg 1 prasastr – magistrate, samahartr- collector general, samnidhatr-chief treasurer, pradestr-commissioner, ativahika- officer incharge , forest. Etc…